Phenomenon of Totalitarianism: Exit to the Twenty-First Century

Phenomenon of Totalitarianism:
Exit to the Twenty-First Century


Oganisyan Yu.S.,

Principal Researcher, Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, dorunat@gmail.com


elibrary_id: 491400 |


DOI: 10.17976/jpps/2020.02.12
Rubric: DIXI!

For citation:

Oganisyan Yu.S. Phenomenon of Totalitarianism: Exit to the Twenty-First Century. – Polis. Political Studies. 2020. No. 2. P. 167-177. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.17976/jpps/2020.02.12



Abstract

Totalitarianism did not submerge into the depths of history with the twentieth century. On the contrary, it expanded the political space of its influence globally, albeit differing in a number of essential features from the phenomenon that took shape in the past century. Substantiating these conclusions, the author critically analyzes the basic – discriminatory – model of totalitarianism that has developed in Western science, based on the study of fascism in Italy, Nazism in Germany, and Stalinism in the USSR. With the exception of relict modifications, totalitarianism as a national state phenomenon has persevered in the past century. Globalization opened its path in the twenty-first century, leaving behind one-party dictatorships, mass terror, the cult of leaders, and its other properties described by the basic model. The closed paradigm “liberal democracy – totalitarianism,” in which this model was formed, has also receded into the past. Afer the collapse of the USSR, the dilemma was resolved by the establishment of totalitarianism of a liberal type. Since the end of the twentieth century, liberal democratic regimes, headed by the United States, impose a western form of democracy on the rest of the world through undeclared wars, color revolutions, political pressure, and economic sanctions. The reproduction of this newly transformed totalitarianism provides technological progress, equipping it with previously unknown means of total control and violence which allows it to manipulate the political courses of many states of the world, their parties and governments, and regulate the activities of international organizations. The transformation of totalitarianism in the twenty-first century occurs in the general process of updating the socio-political structure of the world. The leading trends of this process, the author believes, do not nullify the possible prospect of establishing a totalitarian world order, but they do not make it final either. 

Keywords
totalitarian regime, violence, neoliberalism, globalization, world order.


References

Andreski S. 1984. Max Weber’s Insights and Errors. L.: Routledge.

Bernholz P. 2017.Totalitarianism, Terrorism and Supreme Values: History and Theory. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG.

Brzezinski Zb. 2004. The Choice. Global Domination or Global Leadership? New York: Basic Books.

Chugrov S. 2015. American World Order: The End of the ‘End of History’. – Japanese Journal of Political Science. Vol. 16. No. 3. P. 442-449. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1468109915000110

Fascism, Totalitarianism, and Political Religion. 2013. Ed. by Roger Griffin. L.: Routledge.

Friedrich C.J. 1964. The Unique Character of Totalitarian Society. – Totalitarianism. Proceedings of a Conference Held at the American Academy of the Arts and Sciences. March 1953. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Friedrich C.J., Brzezinski Z.K. 1956. Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Flandorfer A.A. 2014. Eschatology of Modern Totalitarianism and the Challenges of Globalization – Postmodern Openings. Editura Lumen, Dep. of Economics Vol. 5. No. 3. P. 37-47.

Shlapentokh D. 2017. The Proto-totalitarian State: Punishment and Control in Absolutist Regimes. L.-New York: Routledge.

Tucker A. 2015. The Legacy of Totalitarianism: A Theoretical Framework. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Antologiya mirovoi politicheskoi mysli v 5 tomakh. 1997. [Antology of World Political Thought in 5 Volumes]. Ed. by T. Alekseeva. Vol. II. Moscow: Mysl’. (In Russ.)

Beck U. 2001. Was ist Globalisierung? (Russ. ed.: Beck U. Chto takoe globalizatsiya? Moscow: Progress-Traditsiya).

Fedotov G.P. 1931. Social Issue and Freedom. – Sovremennye zapiski. No. 47. P. 421-438. (In Russ.)

Il’in I.A. 1993. O totalitarnom rezhime [On Totalitarian Regime]. Il’in I.A. Nashi zadachi. Stat’i 1948-1954 gg.: v 2 t. [Our Tasks. Articles 1948-1954: in 2 vol.]. Vol. 1. Moscow: Airis-press. (In Russ.) P. 134-136.

Makulov S.S. 2018. National press in 1922-1941 on Soviet-Italian relations. – Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya. No. 1. P. 1-6. (In Russ.)

Marcuse G. 1994. One-dimentional Man. Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society (Russ. ed.: Marcuse G. Odnomernyi chelovek: Issledovanie ideologii razvitogo industrial’nogo obshchestva. Moscow: REFL-book).

Ortega y Gasset J. 2016. La rebelion de las masas.(Russ.ed.: Ortega y Gasset J. Vosstanie mass. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo AST).

Rabotyazhev N.V., Solov’ev E.G. 2005. Fenomen totalitarizma: politicheskaya teoriya i istoricheskie metamorfozy [The Phenomenon of Totalitarianism: Political Theory and Historical Metamorphoses]. Moscow: Nauka.

Schwab K., Davis N. 2018. Technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Russ. ed.: Schwab K., Davis N. Tekhnologii chetvertoi promyshlennoi revolyutsii. Moscow: Bombora).

Stalin I.V. 1947. O politicheskoi strategii i taktike kommunistov [On the Political Strategy and Tactics of the Communists]. – Stalin I.V. Sochineniya [Works]. Vol. 5. (1921-1923). Moscow: Gospolitizdat. Totalitarizm kak istoricheskii fenomen [Totalitarianism as an Historical Phenomenon]. 1989. Moscow: Filosofskoe obshchestvo SSSR.

Velichko Yu.V. 2018. Sravnitel’naya politologiya. Totalitarizm v SSSR i Germanii [Compartive Political Science. Totalitarianism in the USSR]. Moscow: Yurait. (In Russ.)

Vidoevich Z. 2007. Liberal’nyi totalitarizm. – Sociological Studies. No. 12. C. 39-49. (In Russ.)

Yakovlev A.N. 2003. Sumerki [Twilight]. Moscow: Materik. 

Content No. 2, 2020

See also:


Mosyakov D.V.,
Oriental Countries and the Crisis of Modern Globalization Model. – Polis. Political Studies. 2015. No6

Fishman L.G.,
Liberal consensus: the drift from neoliberalism to communitarianism?. – Polis. Political Studies. 2014. No4

Ilyinskaya S.G.,
Toleration and Political Violence. – Polis. Political Studies. 2004. No3

Mezhuyev V.M.,
Violence and Freedom in the Political Context. – Polis. Political Studies. 2004. No3

Zakirova L.I.,
Foreign policy process. – Polis. Political Studies. 2012. No4

 

   

Introducing an article



Polis. Political Studies
1 2006


Zaznaev O.I.
Typology of Forms of Government: Rectification of Mistakes

  The article text
 

Archive

   2024      2023      2022      2021   
   2020      2019      2018      2017      2016   
   2015      2014      2013      2012      2011   
   2010      2009      2008      2007      2006   
   2005      2004      2003      2002      2001   
   2000      1999      1998      1997      1996   
   1995      1994      1993      1992      1991