The collapse of hegemonial normality: migration and the politics of memory in the U.S., UK and France

The collapse of hegemonial normality:
migration and the politics of memory in the U.S., UK and France



Article received: 2022.04.07. Accepted: 2022.06.14


DOI: 10.17976/jpps/2023.01.06
EDN: AVSAQN


For citation:

Malakhov V.S., Letnyakov D.E. The collapse of hegemonial normality: migration and the politics of memory in the U.S., UK and France. – Polis. Political Studies. 2023. No. 1. P. 60-74. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.17976/jpps/2023.01.06. EDN: AVSAQN


The article was written on the basis of RANEPA state assignment research programme.


Abstract

The study deals with the transformation of memory politics in the USA, Great Britain and France, and has for purpose to analyze the nature of this transformation. The authors question the assumption that conflicts over a legitimate version of the past were caused by a “minority rebellion” (blacks in the case of the US, descendants of non-European migrants in the case of the UK and France). The article demonstrates that the request for a revision of the dominant narrative regarding the national past was formulated and articulated within civil society, and, accordingly, is not limited to the claims of minorities. The authors rely on an agonistic approach to collective memory, in which the latter is understood as the result of certain conventions emerging in the course of constantly renewed debates in society about one’s own past. The presentation is focused on the analysis of public discussions around the content of school education, the set of official holidays and memorable dates, the appearance of urban spaces and expositions in museums in the three mentioned countries. The findings suggest that the watershed in commemorative conflicts runs not along the line of ethnic origin, but along the line of worldview. Behind the confrontation between different versions of historical memory, there is ultimately the clash of different “models” of the nation (more inclusive and less inclusive), and the very call for a revision of the dominant narrative rests on the issue of including previously excluded groups in the nation.

Keywords
historical memory, cultural politics, politics of memory, memory conflicts, migration, the USA, Western Europe.


References

Alexander, C., Chatterji, J., & Weekes-Bernard, D. (2012). Making British histories. diversity and the national curriculum. London: Runnymede.

Alexander, C., & Weekes-Bernard, D. (2017). History lessons: inequality, diversity and the national curriculum. Race Ethnicity and Education, 20(4), 478-494. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2017.1294571

Araujo, A.L. (Ed.). (2012). Politics of memory. Making slavery visible in the public space. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203119075

Bahmueller, Ch.F. (1996). The struggle over America’s national history standards. Agenda: A Journal of Policy Analysis and Reform, 3(1), 99-104.

Bell, D. (2008). Agonistic Democracy and the politics of memory. Constellations, 15(1), 148-166. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8675.2008.00478.x

Brown, A., & Au, W. (2014). Race, memory, and master narratives: a critical essay on U.S. curriculum history. Curriculum Inquiry, 44(3), 358-389. https://doi.org/10.1111/curi.12049

Bull, A., & Hansen, H. (2016). On agonistic memory. Memory Studies, 9(4), 390-404. https://doi.org/10.1177/1750698015615935

Bull, A., & Reynolds, Ch. (2021). Uses of oral history in museums: a tool for agonism and dissonance or promoting a linear narrative? Museum and Society, 19(3), 283-300. https://doi.org/10.29311/mas.v19i3.3520

Bull, A., Hansen, H., Kansteiner, W., & Parish, N. (2019). War museums as agonistic spaces: possibilities, opportunities and constraints. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 25(6), 611-625. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2018.1530288

Burrell, K., & Panayi, P. (Ed.). (2006). Histories and memories: migrants and their history in Britain. London; New York: Tauris Academic Studies.

Carretero, M., Rodriguez-Moneo, M., & Asensio, M. (Ed.). (2012). History education and the construction of national identity. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.

Delanty, G. (2017). The European heritage. A critical re-interpretation. London; New York: Routledge.

Frith, N. (2013). ‘Working through’ slavery: the limits of shared memories in contemporary France. Irish Journal of French Studies, 13, 17-39. https://doi.org/10.7173/164913313809455657

Gilroy, P. (1987). There ain’t no black in the Union Jack. London: Hutchinson.

Gilroy, P. (2004). After empire. Melancholia or convivial culture? London: Routledge.

Glynn, I., & Kleist, J.O. (Ed.). (2012). History, memory and migration. Perceptions of the past and the politics of incorporation. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Green, N.L. (2007). A French Ellis Island? Museums, memory and history in France and the United States. History Workshop Journal, 63(1), 239-253. https://doi.org/10.1093/hwj/dbm011

Grever, M., & Stuurman, S. (Ed.). (2007). Beyond the canon. History for the twenty-first century. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hanauer, E. (2014). The discourse and teaching of immigration history in France: negotiations of terminology, ideology, and school space. PhD Thesis. New York: New York University.

Hourcade, R. (2012). Commemorating a guilty past. The politics of memory in the French former slave trade cities. In A.L. Araujo (Ed.), Politics of Memory. Making Slavery Visible in the Public Space (pp. 124-140). New York: Routledge.

Lebow, R.N., Kansteiner, W., & Fogu, C. (Ed.). (2006). The Politics of Memory in Postwar Europe. Durham; London: Duke University Press.

Leyh, B.McG. (2021). Imperatives of the Present: Black Lives Matter and the politics of memory and memorialization. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 38(4), 239-245. https://doi.org/10.1177/0924051920967541

Lidher, S., McIntosh, M., & Alexander, C. (2021). Our migration story: history, the national curriculum, and re-narrating the British nation. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 47(18), 4221-4237. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2020.1812279

Mouffe, Ch. (2000). The democratic paradox. London; New York: Verso.

Mouffe, Ch. (2013). Agonistics: thinking the world politically. London; New York: Verso.

Noiriel, G. (1988). Le Creuset francais. Histoire de l’immigration – XIX – XX siecles. Paris: Le Seuil; “L ‘Univers Historique”.

Ribbens, K. (2007). A Narrative that encompasses our history: historical culture and history teaching. In M. Grever, & S. Stuurman (Ed.), Beyond the Canon. History for the Twenty First Century (pp. 63-76). London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230599246_5

Rocksborough-Smith, I. (2018). Black public history in Chicago. Civil rights activism from World War II into the Cold War. Urbana, Chicago, Springfield: University of Illinois Press. https://doi.org/10.5622/illinois/9780252041662.001.0001

Rothberg, M. (2009). Multidirectional memory. Remembering Holocaust in the age of decolonization. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Sartre, J.-P. (2001). Colonialism and neocolonialism. London: Routledge.

Silverstein, P. (2015). Rethinking colonialism and decolonization in Algeria. 60 years later. European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology, 2(2), 89-121. https://doi.org/10.1080/23254823.2015.1090690

Simpson, M.G. (1996). Making representation. Museums in the post-colonial era. London; New York: Routledge.

Soysal, Y., & Szakacs, S. (2010). Reconceptualizing the Republic: diversity and education in France, 1945-2008. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 41(1), 97-115. https://doi.org/10.1162/jinh.2010.41.1.97

Stevens, M. (2008). Immigrants into citizens: ideology and nation-building in the Cite nationale de l’histoire de l’immigration. Museological Review, 13, 57-73.

Tomlinson, S. (2015). Fundamental British values. In C. Alexander, D. WeekesBernard, & J. Arday (Ed.), The Runnymede School Report. Race, Education and Inequality in Contemporary Britain (pp. 10-14). London: Runnymede Trust.

Wagner-Pacifici, R., & Schwartz, B. (1991). The Vietnam veterans memorial: commemorating a difficult past. American Journal of Sociology, 97(2), 376-420. https://doi.org/10.1086/229783

Wilson, M.O. (2012). Negro building: black Americans in the world of fairs and museums. London; Berkley: University of California Press. https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520952492

 

Beck, U. (2007). Macht und Gegenmacht im globalen Zeitalter. Neue weltpolitische Okonomie (Russ. ed.: Beck, U. Vlast‘ i ee opponenty v epokhu globalizma. Novaya vsemirno-politicheskaya ekonomiya. Moscow: Territoriya budushchego; Progress-Traditsiya).

Bruckner, P. (2009). La tirannia della penitenza. Saggio sul masochismo occidentale. (Russ. ed.: Bruckner, P. Tiraniya pokayaniya: esse o zapadnom mazokhizme. Saint Petersburg: Ivan Limbakh Publ.).

Ferguson, N. (2013). Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World. (Russ. ed.: Ferguson, N. Imperiya: chem sovremennyi mir obyazan Britanii. Moscow: Astrel).

Filippova, E.I., & Filippov, R.V. (2020). The Collapse of the French Colonial Empire in the Memory Politics of the Fifth Republic. Izvestiya of Altai State University, 6, 77-80. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.14258/izvasu(2020)6-13

Huntington, S. (2004). Who are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity. (Russ. ed.: Huntington, S. Kto my? Vyzovy amerikanskoi identichnosti. Moscow: Tranzitkniga).

Nora, P., Ozouf, M., Puimege, Ch., & Winock, M. (1999). Frantsiya-pamyat’ [France-Memory]. Saint Petersburg: Saint Peterburg State University Publ. (In Russ.)

Oushakine, S. (2021). Kolonial’nyi omlet i ego posledstviya: o publichnykh istoriyakh postkolonii sotsializma [The colonial omelet and its consequences: on the public stories of the post-colonies of Socialism]. In A. Zavadskii, & V. Dubina (Ed.), Vse v proshlom: Teoriya i praktika publichnoi istorii [All is in the past. Theory and practice of public history] (pp. 395-428). Moscow: Novoe izdatel’stvo. (In Russ.)

Content No. 1, 2023

See also:


Artamonov D.S, Tikhonova S.V.,
Memory policy on the Internet memes: from visualization of history to fakes. – Polis. Political Studies. 2022. No5

Latov Yu.V.,
Paradoxes of Memory of the Recent Past: USSR Under Brezhnev, Russia Under Yeltsin and Putin in Perception of the Current Generation of Russians. – Polis. Political Studies. 2018. No5

Stepanova N.M.,
The state family policy in West European Countries (the 1990s – the 2000s). – Polis. Political Studies. 2010. No5

Mikhalev A.V.,
From the frontier of opposition to the ruins of oblivion, or politics of memory in post-socialist Inner Asia. – Polis. Political Studies. 2023. No6

Zarubina N.N., Noskova A.V.,
Images of Russia: Reflecting on the Eras of Change. – Polis. Political Studies. 2019. No2

 

   

Introducing an article



Polis. Political Studies
3 2018


Kholodkovskii K.G.
Complex Problems of Modern Public Consciousness

 The article text
 

Archive

   2024      2023      2022      2021   
   2020      2019      2018      2017      2016   
   2015      2014      2013      2012      2011   
   2010      2009      2008      2007      2006   
   2005      2004      2003      2002      2001   
   2000      1999      1998      1997      1996   
   1995      1994      1993      1992      1991