The impact of streaming on the film industry and soft power strategies in China, South Korea and Japan

The impact of streaming on the film industry and soft power strategies in China, South Korea and Japan


Paksiutov G.D.,

Institute of China and Contemporary Asian Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, gpaksyutov@mail.ru


elibrary_id: 965340 | ORCID: 0000-0001-7153-4315 | RESEARCHER_ID: ABF-9928-2021

Article received: 2022.01.21. Accepted: 2022.08.19


DOI: 10.17976/jpps/2023.02.04
EDN: ITXUKL


For citation:

Paksiutov G.D. The impact of streaming on the film industry and soft power strategies in China, South Korea and Japan. – Polis. Political Studies. 2023. No. 2. P. 41-53. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.17976/jpps/2023.02.04. EDN: ITXUKL



Abstract

The article aims to examine the impact of the globally popular streaming services (Netflix, etc.) on the film industry and the national soft power strategies in China, Japan and South Korea. The author highlights the specific characteristics and the reasons for the economic success of the streaming services business model. The investigation shows that China cooperates very cautiously with the US-based streaming services, forbids them the access to the national film market and does not promote the home-produced audiovisual contents through the global digital platforms, aiming to preserve the independent decision-making in the cultural industries. South Korean film industry cooperates with Netflix extensively – a tendency in line with the state-supported national strategy aimed to promote the creative goods through the digital media and the social networks. More recently, the Japanese animation industry also intensifies its cooperation with the US-based streaming service in attempt to diversify their revenue sources, which is a crucial task in light of the rapid ageing of the country’s population. However, such cooperation is connected with the risk of compromising the national cultural identity. We conclude the article by discussing the theoretical problems raised by the ongoing transformation of the film industry under the streaming services’ impact and stress that if we attempt to assess a country’s soft power strategy’s outcomes, it is necessary to uncover the specific goals of the strategy.

Keywords
soft power, film industry, streaming services, digitalization of culture, globalization, China, Japan, South Korea.


References

Araujo, M. (2020). Além do animê: Reality TV e o soft power japonês [Beyond the anime: reality TV and the Japanese soft power]. Fronteiras – estudos midiáticos, 22(2), 103-113. (In Portuguese) https://doi.org/10.4013/fem.2020.222.09  

Couldry, N., & Mejias, U.A. (2019). Data colonialism: rethinking big data’s relation to the contemporary subject. Television & New Media, 20(4), 336-349.

De Vany, A. (2004). Hollywood economics: how extreme uncertainty shapes the film industry. London: Routledge.

Hernandez, A.D.H. (2018). The anime industry, networks of participation, and environments for the management of content in Japan. Arts, 7(3), 42. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/arts7030042

Holroyd, C. (2019). Digital content promotion in Japan and South Korea: Government strategies for an emerging economic sector. Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies, 6(3), 290-307. https://doi.org/10.1002/app5.277

Iwabuchi, K. (2004). How «Japanese» is Pokemon? In J. Tobin (Ed.), Pikachu’s Global Adventure: The Rise and Fall of Pokemon (pp. 53-79). Durham, London: Duke University Press.

Jiang, S. (2017). China’s Hong Kong: A political and cultural perspective. Singapore: Springer.

Jin, D.Y. (2017). Construction of digital Korea: the evolution of new communication technologies in the 21st century. Media, Culture & Society, 39(5), 715-726. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0163443717709441

Jung, S. (2011). Korean masculinities and transcultural consumption: Yonsama, Rain, Oldboy, K-pop idols. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Jung, H. (2017). Transnational media culture and soft power of the Korean Wave in the United States. In T.-J. Yoon, & D.Y. Jin (Ed.), The Korean Wave: Evolution, Fandom, and Transnationality. (pp. 225-244). Lanham: Lexington Books.

Keane, M., & Wu, H. (2021). Online platforms, cultural power, and China’s pan-Asian strategy. In D.Y. Jin (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Digital Media and Globalization (pp.158-166). New York, London: Routledge.

Keping, Y. (2009). Democracy is a good thing. Washington: Brookings University Press.

Kim, J.O. (2021). The Korean wave and the new global media economy. In D.Y. Jin (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Digital Media and Globalization (pp. 77-86). New York, London: Routledge.

Kim, Y. (2022). Introduction: popular culture and soft power in the social media age. In Y. Kim (Ed.), The Soft Power of the Korean Wave (pp. 1-38). Abindgon, New York: Routledge.

Lie, J. (2012). What is the K in K-pop? South Korean popular music, the culture industry, and national identity. Korea observer, 43(3), 339-363.

Lobato, R. (2019). Netflix nations. New York: New York University Press.

Lorenzen, M., & Mudambi, R. (2013). Clusters, connectivity and catch-up: Bollywood and Bangalore in the global economy. Journal of Economic Geography, 13(3), 501-534.

Masuda, H., et al. (2021). Anime industry report 2020: Summary. Tokyo: The Association of Japanese Animations.

Matthew, J.R. (2020). Netflix and the design of the audience: the homogeneous constraints of data-driven personalization. MedieKultur: Journal of Media & Communication Research, 36(69), 52-70.

Mihara, R. (2020). Involution: a perspective for understanding Japanese animation's domestic business in a global context. Japan Forum, 32(10), 102-125.

Murphy, P. (2010). The limits of soft power. In D. Black, S. Epstein, A. Tokita (Ed.), Complicated Currents: Media flows, soft power and East Asia (pp. 319-340). Melbourne: Monash University Press.

Nye, J.S. (1990). Soft Power. Foreign Policy, 80, 153-171.

Nye, J.S., & Kim, Y. (2013). Soft power and the Korean wave. In Kim Y. (Ed.), The Korean Wave: Korean Media Go Global (pp. 29-40). London, New York: Routledge.

Otmazgin, N.K. (2018). The Chrysanthemum and the cool: cultural diplomacy and soft power in Japan’s foreign policy. In M.M. McCarthy (Ed.), Routledge Handbook of Japanese Foreign Policy (pp. 55-70). Abingdon: Routledge.

Pajkovic, N. (2021). Algorithms and taste-making: Exposing the Netflix recommender system's operational logics. Convergence, 28(1), 214-235. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F13548565211014464

Paksiutov, G.D. (2021). Transformation of the global film industry: prospects for Asian countries. Russia in Global Affairs, 19(2), 111-132. https://doi.org/10.31278/1810-6374-2021-19-2-111-132

Parc, J., & Kawashima, N. (2018). Wrestling with or embracing digitalization in the music industry: the contrasting business strategies of J-pop and K-pop. Kritika Kultura, 30, 25-48.

Peng, W. (2015) China, film coproduction and soft power competition. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology.

Peng, W., & Keane, M. (2019). China’s soft power conundrum, film coproduction, and visions of shared prosperity. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 25(7), 904-916. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2019.1634062

Postman, N. (1993). Technopoly: the surrender of culture to technology. New York: Vintage Books.

Postman, N. (2006). Amusing ourselves to death. New York: Penguin Books.

Sun, W. (2017). Soft power by accident or by design: if you are the one and Chinese television. In P. Voci, & L. Hui (Ed.), Screening China's Soft Power (pp. 194-209). London: Routledge.

Thussu, D. (2020). India's soft power. Lumina. 14(1), 111-124. http://doi.org/10.34019/1981-4070.2020.v14.30137

Vlassis, A. (2021). Global online platforms, COVID-19, and culture: the global pandemic, an accelerator towards which direction? Media, Culture & Society, 43(5), 957-969. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163443721994537

Wang, W.Y., & Lobato, R. (2019). Chinese video streaming services in the context of global platform studies. Chinese Journal of Communication, 12(3), 356-371. https://doi.org/10.1080/17544750.2019.1584119

McLuhan, M. (2019). Understanding media: the extensions of man. Moscow: Kuchkovo Pole. (In Russ.)

Paksiutov, G.D. (2020). Netflix's business model: economic value and socio-cultural impact. The REU Bulletin, 17(3), 145-156. (In Russ.) http://dx.doi.org/10.21686/2413-2829-2020-3-145-156  

Ruskin, J. (2021). Lectures on art. Saint Petersburg: Azbuka-Attikus. (In Russ.)

McLuhan, M. (2019). Understanding media: the extensions of man. Moscow: Kuchkovo Pole. (In Russ.)

Paksiutov, G.D. (2020). Netflix's business model: economic value and socio-cultural impact. The REU Bulletin, 17(3), 145-156. (In Russ.) http://dx.doi.org/10.21686/2413-2829-2020-3-145-156  

Ruskin, J. (2021). Lectures on art. Saint Petersburg: Azbuka-Attikus. (In Russ.)

Content No. 2, 2023

See also:


Round Table of the «Polis» Journal, Streltsov D.V., Chugrov S.V., Karelova L.B., Oznobishchev S.K.,
Russia and Japan. Part II. View from Russia. – Polis. Political Studies. 2014. No1

Inoguchi T.,
Political Science in Three Democracies, Disaffected (Japan), Third Wave (Korea) and Fledgeling (China). – Polis. Political Studies. 2004. No5

Liu Zaiqi,
«Soft Power» in China’s Development Strategy. – Polis. Political Studies. 2009. No4

Kostyrev A.G.,
The intelligent power, public diplomacy, and social networks as a factors of international politics. – Polis. Political Studies. 2013. No2

Chugrov S.V.,
Sof Attraction of Japan. – Polis. Political Studies. 2015. No6

 

   

Introducing an article



Polis. Political Studies
2 1991


Varga Ye.S.
To Be Unsealed in 25 Years (Foreword by M.Ya. Gefter)

 The article text
 

Archive

   2024      2023      2022      2021   
   2020      2019      2018      2017      2016   
   2015      2014      2013      2012      2011   
   2010      2009      2008      2007      2006   
   2005      2004      2003      2002      2001   
   2000      1999      1998      1997      1996   
   1995      1994      1993      1992      1991