Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Political Elites’ Institutionalization in the Baltic States
Cand. Sci. (Pol. Sci.), Senior Researcher, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, email@example.com
elibrary_id: 633719 |
The article deals with theoretical and methodological aspects of elite study in the Baltic states on the basis of small states and regional studies. The special features of genesis and development of power groups in the region are deduced. The problem of theoretical correspondence between structural and subject aspects of study of political elite is considered. Emphasis is put upon the problem of juncture between domestic and foreign policy factors influencing political elite decisions. One of the starting points is theory of small states through the lens of which the main features of power groups development in the Baltic region are investigated. Small size of a state produces high dependency of political elites is Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia on foreign factors or, using terminology of Joseph Colomer, contemporary ”empires” which structure transnational space. Special attention is paid to the historical factors in the genesis of political elite after the Baltic states left the Soviet Union. The article problematizes transitology paradigm, which is prevalent in the studies of this period in the Baltic states and in Eastern Europe as a whole. Besides the imperatives of regime change and transformation towards democratic ideals it is important to consider the imperatives of competition between power groups for resources in domestic and foreign political environment. Few contradictions are emphasized, i.e. the liquidation of OSCE missions in Latvia and Estonia, development of institutions of memory politics, criminalization of the denial of “Soviet occupation”. These are the instances of political elite decision on different stages of political regimes genesis in the Baltic states which are not fit into the logics of theory of democratization. On the basis of these theoretical assumptions various methods of elite studies are considered. The article proposes a theoretical framework of institutional regionalism which is presumed as more efficient as means of power groups studies in the Baltic states.
Andžāns M. Securitization in Defining Regional Security Complexes: the Case of the Baltic States. Riga: Rīga Stradiņš Universit. 2014. 39 p.
Archer M. Being Human: the Problem of Agency. Cambridge University Press. 2004. 336 p.
Börzel T.A. Comparative Regionalism: A New Research Agenda. KFG Working Paper. No. 28. 2011. 38 p. URL: http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/kfgeu/kfgwp/wpseries/WorkingPaperKFG_28.pdf (accessed 17.07.2017).
Bourdieu P. The Forms of Capital. – Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. Ed. by J.G. Richards. New York: Greenwood Press. 1986. P. 241-258.
Bozoki A. Theoretical Interpretations of Elite Change in East Central Europe. – Elite Configurations at the Apex of Power. Ed. by M. Dogan, M. Leiden. Brill. 2003. P. 215-223.
Busygina I.M. Politicheskaja rol’ regionov v strukture Evropejskogo Sojuza: Konceptual’nye i prikladnye aspekty [Political Role of Regions in the Structure of the European Union: Conceptual and Practical Aspects]. Moscow: MGIMO. 2001. 310 p. (In Russ.)
Chugrov S.V. The Notion of Foreign Policy Mentality and Methodology of Its Study. – Polis. Political Studies. 2007. No. 4. P. 46-65. (In Russ.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.17976/jpps/2007.04.04
Colomer J. Great Empires, Small Nations. The Uncertain Future of the Sovereign State. Routledge. 2007. 114 p.
Grigas A., Kasekamp A. Maslauskaite K., Zorgenfreija L. The Baltic States in the EU: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Berlin: Jacques Delors Institute. 2013. 100 p.
Hankiss E. Reforms and the Conversion of Power. – Upheaval against the Plan: Eastern Europe on the Eve of the Storm. Ed. by P. Weilemann, G. Brunner, R. Tokes. Oxford: Berg. 1991. P. 27-39.
Honore A. The Outlook for Natural Gas Demand in Europe. Oxford: Oxford Institute of Energy Studies. 2014. 174 p. URL: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ed32/533e73e4b8e16f53ccb585b639264fc64f96.pdf (accessed 02.08.2017).
Kapustin B.G. The End of “Transitology”? (Reflecting on the First Post-Communist Decade as Subject of Theoretical Interpretation). – Polis. Political Studies. 2001. No. 4. P. 6-27. (In Russ.)
Katzenstein P.J. Small States and Small States Revisited. – New Political Economy. 2003. Vol. 8. No. 1. P. 9-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1356346032000078705
Lebedeva M.M. Actors of Contemporary World Politics: Trends of Development. – Vestnik MGIMO- University. 2013. Vol. 1. No. 28. P. 38-41. (In Russ.)
Lee J. Hedging against Uncertain Future: The Response of East Asian Secondary Powers to Rising China. 2012. URL: http://rc41.ipsa.org/public/Madrid_2012/lee.pdf (accessed 17.07.2017).
Malksoo M. From Existential Politics Towards Normal Politics? The Baltic States in the Enlarged Europe. – Security Dialogue. 2006. Vol. 37. No. 3. P. P. 275-295.
Mezhevich N.M., Shadurskij A.V., Grozovskij A.M. Otnoshenija Rossii i stran Pribaltiki: ot upushhennyh vozmozhnostej k real’nym perspektivam [Relations between Russian and Baltic States: from Lost Opportunities towards Realistic Prospects]. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University. 2013. 86 p. (In Russ.)
Rothstein R. Alliances and Small Powers. New York. 1968. x+331 p. Safronovas V. On Treand in Memory Politics in Modern Lithuania. – Ab Imperio: Studies of New Imperial History and Nationalism in the Post-Soviet Space. 2009. № 3. P. 424-458. (In Russ.)
Sewell W.H. Logics of History: Social Theory and Social Transformation. University of Chicago Press. 2009. 376 p.
Smirnov V.A. Politicheskie jelity Latvii, Litvy i Jestonii: faktory rekrutirovanija i strukturnaja dinamika [Political elites of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia: Factors of Recruitment and Structural Dynamics]. Kaliningrad: Izdatel’stvo Baltijskogo federal’nogo universiteta im. I. Kanta. 2016. 181 p. (In Russ.)
Steen A., Ruus J. Change of Regime – Continuity of Elites? The Case of Estonia. – East European Politics and Societies. 2002. Vol. 16. No. 1. P. 223-248.
Szelenyi I., Szelenyi S. Circulation of Reproduction of Elites During the Postcommunist Transformation of Eastern Europe. – Theory and Society. 1995. Vol. 24. No. 5. P. 615-638. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007BF00993400
Vse my deti svoego vremeni: Istorii zhizni russkih v Latvii [We are All Children of Our Times: Stories from Lives of Russians in Latvia]. Ed. by N. Pazuhina, I. Garda-Rozenberg. Institut filosofii i sociologii Latvijskogo universiteta. 2016. 411 p. (In Russ.)
Wasilewski J. Three Elites of the Central-East European Democratization. – Transformative Paths in Central and Eastern Europe. Ed. by R. Markowski, E. Wnuk-Lipinski. Warsaw: Institute of Polish Studies. 2001. P. 133-142.
Zverev Yu.M., Mezhevich N.M.,
Approaches to the Typology of European Small Countries (Case of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania). – Polis. Political Studies. 2019. No5
Selezneva A.V., Rogozar-Kolpakova I.I., Filistovich Ye.S., Trofimova V.V., Dobrynina Ye.P., Streletz I.E.,
Russian political elite: analysis from the perspective of the human capital concept. – Polis. Political Studies. 2010. No4
The culture of russian political actors: a variant of typology. – Polis. Political Studies. 2011. No5
The Cossacks' Krug as Political Institution. – Polis. Political Studies. 1996. No1
Gaman-Golutvina O.V., Solov’eva D.D.,
France’s New Political Elite Against the Old Recruitment System. – Polis. Political Studies. 2021. No6