Regionalist projects in non-ethnic regions of Russia: actors, legitimation, outcomes

Regionalist projects in non-ethnic regions of Russia:
actors, legitimation, outcomes


Kiryanov I.K.,

Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russia, ikiryanov@yandex.ru


elibrary_id: 250677 | ORCID: 0000-0002-2866-877X | RESEARCHER_ID: AAH-5458-2020

Panov P.V.,

Perm Federal Research Center, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia, panov.petr@gmail.com


elibrary_id: 77223 | ORCID: 0000-0002-0759-7618 | RESEARCHER_ID: O-2160-2016


DOI: 10.17976/jpps/2022.01.07
Rubric: Russia Today

For citation:

Kiryanov I.K., Panov P.V. Regionalist projects in non-ethnic regions of Russia: actors, legitimation, outcomes. – Polis. Political Studies. 2022. No. 1. P. 67-85. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.17976/jpps/2022.01.07


The first and the third parts of the article were prepared with financial support provided by the Russian Science Foundation. Research grant №19-18-00053 “Subnational Regionalism and Dynamics of Multi-Level Politics (Russian and European Practices)”. The research was conducted at the Perm Federal Research Center, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences. The second part of the article was prepared in the framework of the research theme “Sociocultural and political dynamics of Russian society in the XIX – early XXI centuries” (Department of Interdisciplinary Historical Studies, Perm State National Research University).


Abstract

Regionalist movements in post-Soviet Russia have been well studied in relation to ethnic republics, but in the “situation of uncertainty” of the early 1990s, regionalist projects have become widespread in non-ethnic regions as well. It was a clearly expressed as “reactive regionalism”. Fearing that in the context of increasing powers of the republics, “Russian” oblasts and krajs would turn out to be “second-rate” regions, regional elites put forward projects aimed at raising their status to the level of republics. Despite the fact that since the second half of the 1990s, regionalism had declined, in some regions, regionalist projects endured. The purpose of the article is to determine how non-ethnic regionalist projects are legitimized and reproduced. Theoretically, their effectiveness is explained by the actor constellation and the extent to which the actors manage to fill them with legitimate meanings. The most favorable constellation is when all three groups of actors are involved in promoting the project: regional authorities (“top-down regionalism”), activists (“bottom-up regionalism”), and intellectuals. Therefore, for an in-depth study, those regionalist projects, where a favorable actor constellation formed after the middle of 1990s, have been selected: The Baltic republic in the Kaliningrad oblast’, The Ural republic in the Sverdlovsk oblast’, and the Pomor republic in the Arkhangelsk oblast’. As the constellation changed over time, a comparative analysis of these projects in dynamics makes it possible to answer the research question. Our findings reveal that a favorable actor constellation is not a decisive factor for a project to gain public support. More important is the effective legitimation of the project. In the Arkhangelsk oblast’, where actor constellation was the most favorable, the “ethnicization” of the regionalist idea did not meet wide public support, while the population of the Kaliningrad oblast’, on the contrary, continued to have a positive attitude to the regionalist idea even in the 2000s, when the authorities had stopped promoting it.  

Keywords
regionalism, regionalist project, actor constellation, legitimation, support, comparative analysis.


References

Cartrite, B., & Miodownik, D. (2016). Determinants of regional political distinctiveness. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 22(2), 119-148. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537113.2016.1169057

Dandoy, R. (2010). Ethno-regionalist parties in Europe: a typology. Perspectives on Federalism, 2, 194-220.

Fitjar, R. (2010). Explaining variation in sub-state regional identities in Western Europe. European Journal of Political Research, 49, 522-544. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.2009.01907.x

Giuliano, E. (2006). Secessionism from the bottom up: democratization. Nationalism, and local accountability in the Russian transition. World Politics, 58(1), 276-310. https://doi.org/10.1353/wp.2006.0025

Goode, P. (2010). The fall and rise of regionalism? Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 26(2), 233-256. https://doi.org/10.1080/13523271003712583

Gorenburg, D. 2003. Minority ethnic mobilization in the Russian Federation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hale, H. (2008). The foundations of ethnic politics: separatism of states and nations in Eurasia and the world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hombrado, A. (2011). Learning to catch the wave? Regional demands for constitutional change in contexts of asymmetrical arrangements. Regional & Federal Studies, 21(4-5), 479-501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13597566.2011.578943

Jeffery, C. (2009). New research agendas on regional party competition. Regional & Federal Studies, 19(4-5), 639-650. https://doi.org/10.1080/13597560903310436

Keating, M. (n.d.). Regionalism and regionalization. In The Princeton Encyclopedia of Self-Determination. Princeton: Princeton University. https://pesd.princeton.edu/node/626

Massetti, E., & Schakel, A. (2016). Between autonomy and secession: decentralization and regionalist party ideological radicalism. Party Politics, 22(1), 59-79. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068813511380

Matsuzato, K. (2001). From communist boss politics to post-communist caciquismo – the meso-elite and meso-governments in post-communist countries. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 34(2), 175-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-067X(01)00007-1

Dandoy, R., & Schakel, A. (Ed.) (2013). Regional and National Elections in Western Europe. Territoriality of the Vote in Thirteen Countries. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

Schakel, A. (Ed.) (2017). Regional and National Elections in Eastern Europe. Territoriality of the Vote in Ten Countries. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sharafutdinova, G. (2010). Subnational governance in Russia: how Putin changed the contract with his agents and the problems it created for Medvedev. Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 40(4), 672–696. https://doi.org/10.1093/publius/pjp036

Shcherbak, A. (2015). Nationalism in the USSR: a historical and comparative perspective. Nationalities Papers, 43(6), 866-885. https://doi.org/10.1080/00905992.2015.1072811

Söderlund, P. (2006). The dynamics of federalism in Russia: a study of formal and informal power resources of the regional chief executives in Russian centre-region relations. Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press.

Solnick, S. (1998). Will Russia Survive? Center and periphery in the Russian Federation. In Post-Soviet political order: Conflict and State Building (pp. 58-80). London, New York: Routledge.

Treisman, D. (1997). Russia’s “ethnic revival”: the separatist activism of regional leaders in a postcommunist order. World Politics, 49, 212-249. https://doi.org/10.1353/wp.1997.0006 

 

Berger P., & Luckmann, T. (1995). The social construction of reality. a treatise on sociology of knowledge. (Russ. ed.: Berger, P., Luckmann, T. Sotsial’noe konstruirovanie real’nosti. Traktat po sotsiologii znaniya. Moscow: Medium).

Busygina, I. (2006). Politicheskaya regionalistika [Political regional studies]. Moscow: ROSSPEN. (In Russ.)

Dregalo, A.A., & Ulyanovskiy, V.I. (2010). Sociologiya regional’nyh transformacij [Sociology of regional transformations]. Arkhangelsk: Northern (Arctic) Federal University. (In Russ.)

Gerasimenko, O. (2014). Needinaya Rossiya [Non-united Russia]. Moscow: Common place. (In Russ.)

Klemeshev, A., & Mau, V. (2007). Strategii razvitiya Kaliningradskoj oblasti [Development strategies of the Kaliningrad region]. Kaliningrad: Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University Publ. (In Russ.)

Knyazev, V.V. (2015). Chelyabinsk region in times of political crisis (1991-1993). Tomsk State University Journal of History, 1, 41-46. (In Russ.) http://journals.tsu.ru/engine/download.php?id=44129&area=files

Kotsyubinsky, D.A. (2019). Symbols of St. Petersburg’s regionalism: an attempt to create new urban symbols and the reasons for its failure in the 1990-2000s. Public Policy, 1, 89-110. (In Russ.)

Kynev, A.V. (2020). Gubernatory v Rossii: mezhdu vyborami i naznacheniyami [Governors in Russia: between elections and appointments]. Moscow: Fund “Liberal’naya missiya”. (In Russ.)

Mineev, A.P. (2015). On the Issue of political foreign culture of Russian regions. Current Problems of Europe, 1, 81-98. (In Russ.)

Moshkin, S.V. (2013). Ural Republic. Chronicle. Diskurs-PI, 13, 103-107. (In Russ.)

Muzaev, T. (1999). Etnicheskij separatizm v Rossii [Ethnic separatism in Russia]. Moscow: Panorama. (In Russ.)

Nazukina, M.V. (2020). Identity aspects of the regionalist discourse of federal symbolic competitions. Political Science (RU), 4, 200-220. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.31249/poln/2020.04.10

Okunev, I. Y. (2019). Politicheskaya geografiya [Political geography]. Moscow: Aspect Press. (In Russ.)

Osipov, I.V. (2018). The project of the creation of the Ural Republic in 1993. Moscow University Bulletin. Series 21. Public Administration, 3, 143-161. (In Russ.)

Panov, P.V. (2020). Many faces of regionalism. Bulletin of Perm University. Political Science, 1, 102-115. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.17072/2218-1067-2020-1-102-115

Podvintsev, O. (2016). Rossijskaya Arktika v poiskah integral’noj identichnosti [The Russian Arctic in search of integral identity]. Moscow: Novyj hronograf. (In Russ.)

Shabaev, Y.P. (2016). Russkij Sever i Pomor’e v simvolicheskom i kul’turnom landshafte Evropejskogo Severa RF i v etnopolitike [Russian North and Pomorie in the symbolic and cultural landscape of the European North of the Russian Federation and in ethnopolitics]. Chelovek. Kul’tura. Obrazovanie, 3, 295-320. (In Russ.)

Shabaev, Y.P., & Sadokhin, A.P. (2012). Regionalism and ethnicity in the space of public policy: ideol­ogies and political practices. Political Expertise Journal, 2, 126-149. (In Russ.)

Sulimov, K.A. (2020). Lawsuit vs amendment: Russian regions activity dynamics in using constitutional court appeals and legislative initiatives at federal level. Ars Administrandi, 4, 556-576. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.17072/2218-9173-2020-4-556-576

Turovskij, R.F. (2006). Politicheskaya regionalistika [Political regional studies]. Moscow: Izdatel’skij dom GU VSHE. (In Russ.)

Vitkovskaia, T., & Nazukina, M. (2021). The trajectory of the development of regionalism in Russia: practices of Sverdlovsk oblast and the Republic of Tatarstan. Universe of Russia, 30, 1, 67-87. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.17323/1811-038X-2021-30-1-67-87

Yarovoy, G.O. (2007). Regionalizm i transgranichnoe sotrudnichestvo v Evrope [Regionalism and cross-border cooperation in Europe]. St. Petersburg: Norma. (In Russ.)

Zhukovsky, I.I., & Fidrya, E.S. (2015). The perception of Kaliningrad region inhabitants of the regions’ status: dynamics 2001-2016 and factors in preference formation. Moscow University Bulletin. Series 12. Political Science, 6, 73-89. (In Russ.)  

Content No. 1, 2022

See also:


Kulik A.N.,
Comparative Analysis in Partology (K. Janda Project). – Polis. Political Studies. 1993. No1

Chimiris Ye.S., Dontzev S.P.,
The church and modernization in Russia: in search of new value foundations. – Polis. Political Studies. 2010. No6

Nazukina M.V.,
Regionalism in the “messages” of the heads of subjects of the Russian Federation: a discursive perspective. – Polis. Political Studies. 2022. No2

Chirikova A.Ye., Ledyaev V.G., Seltser D.G.,
Power in a Small Russian Town: Configuration and Interaction of Major Local Actors. – Polis. Political Studies. 2014. No2

Zakirova L.I.,
Foreign policy process. – Polis. Political Studies. 2012. No4

 

   

Introducing an article



Polis. Political Studies
1 2008


Delyagin M.G.
Value Crisis: Why Formal Democracy Does Not Work

 The article text
 

Archive

   2024      2023      2022      2021   
   2020      2019      2018      2017      2016   
   2015      2014      2013      2012      2011   
   2010      2009      2008      2007      2006   
   2005      2004      2003      2002      2001   
   2000      1999      1998      1997      1996   
   1995      1994      1993      1992      1991