New regionalism and old issues in the Middle East.
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, email@example.com
elibrary_id: 71360 |
Article received: 2022.08.08. Accepted: 2022.09.04
The concept of regionalism is based on identity, i.e. the cultural, historical, political association of individuals, peoples, states, leaders with a certain region. Regionalization is associated with institution-building or the conclusion of formal agreements which are sometimes substituted or supplemented by informal ties. The article analyzes the processes of regionalization in the Middle East. Regionalization in the Middle East is affected by contradictory trends. The Middle East has always been considered a highly conflict-prone zone, little affected by changes in the external environment. The conflicts themselves have become the systemforming elements, which in their own way tightened this space and ensured the building of coalitions and alliances. Modern conflicts, most of which have become rapidly internationalizing intra-state confrontations, and the general increase in militarization are still eminent characteristics of the Middle East subsystem of international relations. At the same time, the trends towards the rapprochement of individual opponents and normalization are becoming clearer, and their further development could possibly play an integration role in the future. The involvement of both states and non-state or quasi-state actors in these processes is noteworthy. There is a growing independence of the leading regional states as well as an activation of small countries driven by their national interests. The continued fragmentation of the Middle East cannot be equaled to the absence of common features of regional identity and interdependence of states. It also does not exclude the attempts of different parties to develop group strategies in response to common challenges. The building of new logistics and transport routes, the expansion of trade and economic relations between individual countries have all contributed to the regionalization of the Middle East.
Bach, D. (2018). Europe within the world of regionalisms. Przegląd Strategiczny, 11, 345-354. https://doi.org/10.14746/ps.2018.1.24
Fawcett, L. & Hurrell, A. (1995). Regionalism in world politics: regional organization and international order. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hettne, B. (2003). The new regionalism revisited. In F. Söderbaum, & T. Shaw (Ed.), Theories of New Regionalism (pp. 22-42). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hettne, B. & Söderbaum, F. (2008). The future of regionalism: old divides, new frontiers. In F.C. Andrew, W.H. Christopher, & F. De Lombaerde (Ed.), Regionalisation and global governance. The taming of globalisation? Oxon: Routledge, 97-128
Idris, A., & Kurtbag, O. (2014). A non-regional perspective on bilateral relations between states from different regions: a case study of Malaysia-Saudi Arabia relations. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 22(9), 1339-1352.
Korany B. (2013). The Middle East since the Cold War: Initiating the fifth wave of democratization. In L. Fawcett (Ed.), International Relations of the Middle East (pp. 77-102). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schulz, M., Söderbaum, F., & Ojendal, J. (2001). Introduction: a framework for understanding regionalization. In M. Schulz, F. Söderbaum, & J. Ojendal (Ed.). Regionalisation in a Globalizing World. A Comparative Perspective on Actors, Forms and Processes (pp. 1-42). London: Zed.
Söderbaum, F., & Shaw, T. (Ed.) (2003). Theories of New Regionalism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Stepan, A., & Robertson, G. (2004). Arab, not Muslim, exceptionalism. Journal of Democracy, 15(4), 140-146. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.2004.0067
Yeo, L.H. (2010). Institutional regionalism versus networked regionalism: Europe and Asia compared. International Politics, 47, 324-337. https://doi.org/10.1057/ip.2010.18
Fedorchenko A.V. (2020). Integration at Middle East. Mirovoe i nacional’noe hozyajstvo, 3. (In Russ.) https://mirec.mgimo.ru/2020/2020-03/integraciya-na-blizhnem-i-srednem-vostoke
Ilyin, M.V., & Nechayev, V.D. (2022). Challenges and prospects of study of the Greater Mediterranean. Polis. Political Studies, 4, 8-23. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.17976/jpps/2022.03.02
Melkumyan, E.S. (2016). New trends in the policy of the GCC in the period of regional transformation. Vestnik of the Nizhni Novgorod University, 4, 55-63. (In Russ.)
Naumkin, V.V., & Kuznetsov, V.A. (2019). Deja vu: Medieval motifs in modern Arab political life. Vestnik of MGIMO University, 12(4), 38-53. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.24833/2071-8160-2019-4-67-38-53
Prokhorenko, I.L. (2015). The new regionalism and the world order transformation. Pathways to Peace and Security, 2, 20-28. (In Russ.)
Tyukayeva, T.I. (2021). The Eastern Mediterranean in the UAE foreign policy: goals and principles. Vestnik RUDN: International Relations, 21(4), 671-682. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.22363/2313-0660-2021-21-4-671-682
Voskresenskiy, A.D., Koldunova, E.V., & Pronin, E.A. (2012). Regionalization in international relations. In A.V. Torkunov, & A.V. Malgin (Ed.), Contemporary International Relations (pp. 103-116). Moscow: Aspect Press. (In Russ.)
Zvyagelskaya, I.D. (2021). The Arab-Israeli rapprochement: a search for a new normality? Vostok (Oriens), 3, 109-120. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.31857/S086919080015114-2
Sergeev V.M., Sarukhanyan S.N.,
The Middle East in search of a new regional center. – Polis. Political Studies. 2012. No2
Islam and a Nation: the Near East and Central Asia. – Polis. Political Studies. 1998. No2
Symbols and Values in International Relations in the Middle East. – Polis. Political Studies. 2019. No1
Modern Political Conflicts: The Right for Interference. – Polis. Political Studies. 2017. No6
Moscow University Bulletin. Series 25. International relations and world politics: 5 years on track. – Polis. Political Studies. 2014. No5