Policy of sanctions in a changing world: theoretical reflection

Policy of sanctions in a changing world:
theoretical reflection



Article received: 2022.10.31. Accepted: 2022.12.07


DOI: 10.17976/jpps/2023.02.08
EDN: OWQAPZ


For citation:

Timofeev I.N. Policy of sanctions in a changing world: theoretical reflection. – Polis. Political Studies. 2023. No. 2. P. 103-119. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.17976/jpps/2023.02.08. EDN: OWQAPZ



Abstract

In recent years, International Relations (IR) scholars have accumulated an impressive amount of empirical research on the use of sanctions as a part of a foreign policy toolbox. Empirical generalizations galvanized the development of middle-range theories, concentrated on sanctions and related phenomena. However, the amount of empirical literature is already so vast, that the need to develop fundamental categories to generalize these findings emerges as an academic challenge. The challenge is further influenced by the contemporary changes taking place in the international world order. It faces towering competition between great powers and the rising use of sanctions by the U.S. and Western allies against Russia and China, while for a long time sanctions had been mainly concentrated on smaller “pariah” states. The apparent transformation of international realities requires a reconsideration of the fundamental IR categories to approach the issue. Fundamental theory emerges as a practical tool to navigate an increasingly turbulent international realm. Such a challenge is especially relevant for the Russian academic community, which needs to reflect on the current “sanctions tsunami” against Russia. The goal of the article is to revisit major IR theories in relation to the policy of sanctions in changing world order. The key point implies that the disruption of the post-Cold War complex interdependence due to rising competition of great powers may undermine the utility of neoliberal concepts to approach sanctions. Realism may turn into mainstream theory again, approaching sanctions as a mean of power politics in increasingly anarchical world.

Keywords
sanctions, policy of sanctions, IR theory, realism, neoliberalism, constructivism.


References

Alekseeva, T., & Lebedeva, M. (2018). Hybridization in the era of globalization. Age of Globalization, 4, 65-71.

Bapat, N., Clifton, M., & Kobayashi, Y. (2014). The threat of imposition of sanctions: updating the ties dataset. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 31(5), 541-558. https://doi.org/10.1177/0738894213520379

Bapat, N.A., Heinrich, T., Kobayashi, Y., & Morgan, C. 2013. Determinants of sanctions effectiveness: sensitivity analysis using new data. International Interactions, 39, 79-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/03050629.2013.751298

Beirsteker, S.E., & Tourihno, M. (Ed.). (2016). Targeted sanctions. The impacts and effectiveness of United Nations action. New York: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316460290

Brzoska, M. (2015). International sanctions before and beyond UN Sanctions. International Affairs, 91(6), 1339-1349. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2346.12449

Carr, E. (2001). The twenty years’ crisis. London: Palgrave.

Christen, E., Fritz, O., Hinz, J., & Sinabell, F. (2017). Russia’s and the EU’s sanctions: economic and trade effects, compliance and the way forward. Report of EU Parliament Policy Department, Directorate General for External Policies. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/603847/EXPO_STU(2017)603847_EN.pdf

Connolly, R. (2018). Russia’s response to sanctions. How Western economic statecraft is reshaping political economy in Russia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108227346

Drezner, D. (1999). The sanctions paradox: economic statecraft and international relations. New York: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511549366

Drezner, D. (2015). Targeted sanctions in a world of global finance. International Interactions, 41, 755-764. https://doi.org/10.1080/03050629.2015.1041297

Early, B., & Preble, K. (2018). Enforcing economic sanctions: analyzing how OFAC punishes violators of U.S. sanctions. URL: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3306653 (accessed 23.10.2022).

Farrell, H., & Newman, A. (2019). Weaponized interdependence. How global economic networks shape state coercion. International Security, 44(1), 42-79. https://doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00351

Gilpin, R. (2000). The challenge of global capitalism: the world economy in the 21st century. Princeton: Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9780691186474

Giumelli, F. (2016). The purposes of targeted sanctions. In T. Beirsteker, S. Eckert, & M. Tourihno (Ed.), Targeted Sanctions. The Impacts and Effectiveness of United Nations Action (pp. 38-59). New York: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316460290.003

Giumelli, F., Hoffmann, F., & Ksiazczakova, A. (2020). The when, where and why of European Union sanctions. European Security, 30 (1), 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/09662839.2020.1797685

Goede, M. de, & Sullivan, G. (2016). The politics of security risks. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 34(1), 67-88. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263775815599309

Gordon, J. (2019). The not so targeted instrument of asset freezes. Ethics and International Affairs, 33(3), 303-314. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0892679419000315

Grauvogel, J., & Soest von, C. (2014). Claims to legitimacy count: why sanctions fail to instigate democratization in authoritarian regimes. European Journal of Political Research, 53, 635-653. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.12065

Haas, M. (2007). The ideological origins of great power politics, 1789-1989. Ithaka: Cornell University Press.

Haggard, S., & Noland, M. (2017). Hard target. Sanctions, inducements, and the case of North Korea. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Hatipoglu, E., & Peksen, D. (2018). Economic sanctions and banking crises in target economies. Defense and Peace Economics, 29(2), 171-189. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242694.2016.1245811

Hufbauer, G., Shott, J., Elliott, K., & Oegg, B. (2009). Economic sanctions reconsidered. 3rd ed. Washington DC: Peterson Institute for International Economics.

Jaeger, M.D. (2018). Coercive sanctions and international conflicts. London, New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315522432

Jones, L.C., & Portela, C. (2020). Evaluating the success of international sanctions: a new research agenda. Revista CIDOB d’Afers Internacionals, 125, 39-60. https://doi.org/10.24241/rcai.2020.125.2.39/en

Keohane, R., & Nye, J. (1977). Power and interdependence: world politics in transition. Boston: Little Brown.

Likhacheva, A. (2019). Unilateral sanctions in a multipolar world. Challenges and opportunities for Russia’s strategy. Russia in Global Affairs, 17(3), 109-131. https://doi.org/10.31278/1810-6374-2019-17-3-109-131

Mearsheimer, J. (2001). The tragedy of great power politics. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.

Meissner, K. (2022). How to Sanction International Wrongdoing? The Design of EU Restrictive Measures. The Review of International Organizations, 18, 61-85. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11558-022-09458-0

Morgenthau, H. (1946). Scientific man vs. power politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Nephew, R. (2018). The art of sanctions. A view from the field. New York: Columbia University Press. https://doi.org/10.7312/neph18026

Niebuhr, R. (1987). Augustine’s Political Realism. In McAfee, R.B. (Ed.), The essential Reinhold Niebuhr: selected essays and addresses. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Oneal, J., & Russet, B. (1999). Assessing the liberal peace with alternative specifications: trade still reduces conflict, Journal of Peace Research, 36(4), 423-442. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343399036004003

Portela, C. (2010). European Union sanctions and foreign policy. When and why do they work? London: Routledge.

Rosenberg, E., Goldman, Z., Drezner, D., & Solomon-Strauss, J. (2016). The new tools of economic warfare. Effects and effectiveness of contemporary U.S. financial sanctions. Centre for a New American Security.

Spadoni, P. (2010). Failed sanctions: why the U.S. embargo against Cuba could never work. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. https://doi.org/10.5744/florida/9780813035154.001.0001

Timofeev, I. (2019). Rethinking sanctions efficiency. Evidence from 205 cases of the U.S. government enforcement actions against business. Russia in Global Affairs, 17(3), 86-108. https://doi.org/10.31278/1810-6374-2019-17-3-86-108

Timofeev, I. (2021a). Sanktionen gegen Belarus. Grosser Schaden, Kleine Wirkung. Osteuropa, 10-12, 169-182. https://doi.org/10.35998/oe-2021-0084

Timofeev, I. (2021b). Sanctions against Russia: a look into 2021. Russian International Affairs reports. No 65. https://russiancouncil.ru/en/activity/publications/sanctions-against-russia-a-look-into-2021/

Timofeev, I. (2022). Sanctions on Russia: a new chapter. Russia in Global Affairs, 20(4), 103-119. https://doi.org/10.31278/1810-6374-2022-20-4-103-119

Waltz, K. (2010). Theory of international politics. Long Grove: Waveland Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612183

Wendt, A. (1999). Social theory of international politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zarate, J. (2013). Treasury wars. The unleashing of a new era of financial warfare. New York: Public Affairs.

“14 punktov” Vil'sona sto let spustya: kak pereizobresti mirovoi poryadok [“The Fourteen Points” a hundred years later: how to reinvent the world order]. Moscow: Center for Strategic Research. (In Russ.)

Alekseeva, T.A. (2012). “Cultural turn” in IR theory. International Trends, 10(3-4), 4-19. (In Russ.)

Alekseeva, T.A., Mineev, A.P., & Loshkariov, I.D. (2017). “Quantum-like” theory of decision making in political science. Polis. Political Studies, 4, 22-32. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.17976/jpps/2017.04.03

Allison, G. (2002). Kontseptual'nye modeli i kubinskii raketnyi krizis [Conceptual models and the Cuban missile crisis]. In P.A. Tsygankov (Ed.), Teoriya mezhdunarodnykh otnoshenii: khrestomatiya [Theory of international relations: a textbook] (pp. 136-150). Moscow: Gardariki. (In Russ.)

Ananyev, B.I. (2019). Sanctions in IR: understanding, defining, studying. International Organisations Research Journal, 14(3), 136-150. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.17323/1996-7845-2019-03-07

Andreeva, I.S., & Gulyga, A.V. (Ed.). (2003). Traktaty o vechnom mire [Treatises on eternal peace]. Moscow: Sotseukgiz. (In Russ.)

Desai, R. (2020). Geopolitical economy: after US hegemony, globalization and empire. (Russ. ed.: Desai, R. Geopoliticheskaya ekonomiya: posle amerikanskoi gegemonii, globalizatsii i imperii. Moscow: INIR im. S.Yu. Vitte).

Glandin, S.V., Kadysheva, O.V., & Keshner, M.V. (2018). Western sanctions and Russian business: compliance in the era of new challenges. Electronic supplement to the Russian Juridical Journal, 3, 149-152. (In Russ.)

Gurvich, E.T., & Prilepskii, I.V. (2016). The impact of financial sanctions on the Russian economy. Voprosy Ekonomiki, 1, 5-35. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2016-1-5-35

Kant, I. (1996). Zum ewigen Frieden. (Russ. ed.: Kant, I. K vechnomu miru. Sochineniya v shesti tomakh. Vol. 6. Moscow: Mysl').

Kashin, V.B., & Timofeev, I.N. (2020). Amerikano-kitaiskie otnosheniya: k novoi kholodnoi voine? [US-China relations: towards a new Cold War?]. Report of Valdai international discussion club. (In Russ.)

Kashin, V.B., Piatachkova, A.S., & Krasheninnikova, L.S. (2020). Chinese economic sanctions policy: theory and practice. Comparative Politics Russia, 2, 123-138. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.24411/2221-3279-2020-10024

Korgun, I.A., & Toloraya, G.D. (2022). On the question of effectiveness of sanctions against DPRK. Polis. Political Studies, 3, 80-95. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.17976/jpps/2022.03.07

Kozhanov, N.A., & Issaev, L.M. (2019). Iran and sanctions: experience of overcoming and influence on socio-economic development. Asia and Africa Today, 7, 24-31. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.31857/S032150750005565-3

Merton, R.K. (2006). Social theory and social structure. (Russ. ed.: Merton, R.K. Sotsial'naya teoriya i sotsial'naya struktura. Moscow: Khranitel').

Nestik, T.A., & Zhuravlev, A.L. (2018). Psikhologiya global'nykh riskov [Psychology of global risks]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo “Institut psikhologii RAN”. (In Russ.)

Primakov, D.Ya. (2019). Spetsial'nye vidy komplaensa. Antikorruptsionnyi, bankovskii, sanktsionnyi i rozysk arkhivov (forenzik) [Special types of compliance. Anti-corruption, banking, sanctions and search of archives (forenzik)]. Moscow: Infotropik Media. (In Russ.)

Simonov, V.V. (2015). Anti-Russian sanctions and the systemic crisis of the world economy. Voprosy Ekonomiki, 2, 49-68. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2015-2-49-68

Timofeev, I.N. (2018). Economic sanctions as a concept of power politics. MGIMO Review of International Relations, 2(59), 26-42. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.24833/2071-8160-2018-2-59-26-42

Timofeev, I.N. (2020). European paradox: U.S. sanctions against European business. Contemporary Europe, 2, 45-55. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.15211/soveurope220204555

Timofeev, I.N. (2021). Meeting the challenge of economic sanctions: Russian legislative and institutional perspective. Financial Journal, 13(4), 8-23. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.31107/2075-1990-2021-4-8-23

Timofeev, I.N. (2022). An executive dimension of the U.S. sanctions policy. World Eсonomy and International Relations, 66(3), 23-32. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2022-66-3-23-32

Wallerstein, I. (2001). World-systems analysis: an introduction. (Russ. ed.: Wallerstein, I. Analiz mirovykh sistem i situatsiya v sovremennom mire). Saint Petersburg: “Universitetskaya kniga”. 

Content No. 2, 2023

See also:


Konyshev V.N., Sergunin A.A.,
International relations theory: on the threshold of new «Great Debates»?. – Polis. Political Studies. 2013. No2

Sergeev V.M., Kazantzev A.A., Medvedeva S.M.,
The Crisis of Constructivism and Methodological Problems of Studying International Relations. – Polis. Political Studies. 2019. No5

Konyshev V.N.,
Neoclassical Realism in the Theory of International Relations. – Polis. Political Studies. 2020. No4

Alekseyeva T.A., Lebedeva M.M.,
What Is Happening to the Theory of International Relations. – Polis. Political Studies. 2016. No1

Alekseyeva T.A.,
Agent-structure relations: methodology of constructivism. – Polis. Political Studies. 2022. No4

 

   

Introducing an article



Polis. Political Studies
3 2015


Fomin I.V.
Integrating the Humanities: Semiotics or Memetics?

 Полный текст
 

Archive

   2024      2023      2022      2021   
   2020      2019      2018      2017      2016   
   2015      2014      2013      2012      2011   
   2010      2009      2008      2007      2006   
   2005      2004      2003      2002      2001   
   2000      1999      1998      1997      1996   
   1995      1994      1993      1992      1991